Prevalence of ocular pseudoexfoliation in Baso and Worena District, central Ethiopia
Background: Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is an accumulation of fibrillary extracellular material in the anterior segment of the eye. It is the most common identifiable cause of glaucoma.
Objective: To assess the prevalence of pseudoexfoliation syndrome and its association with high intraocular pressure and glaucoma in Baso and Worena District, central Ethiopia.
Methods and subjects: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Baso and Worena District, central Ethiopia, from 09 January to 08 February 2018. After a systematic random selection of participants, a questionnaire was administered. Study participants were then examined to assess the anterior segment of their eyes (using a portable slit lamp), measure intraocular pressure (using a Tono-pen AVIAÂ®), and assess the dilated fund us of each eye (using a direct ophthalmoscope).
Results: A total of 682 people above 40 years of age were examined. The study participantsâ€™ ages ranged from 40 to 89 years. The prevalence of pseudoexfoliation syndrome was found to be 13.2% for patients â‰¥40 years old (90/682), 17.6% for those â‰¥50 years old (85/483), 23.1% for those â‰¥60 years old (74/320), 34.1% for those â‰¥70 years old (42/123), and 27.8% for those â‰¥80 years old (5/18). Seventy one (78.9%) of the 90 participants who were found to have pseudoexfoliation syndrome had bilateral involvement and 19 (21.1%) had unilateral involvement. Prevalence increased with age and was highest for those aged 70 to 79. In twenty nine (32.2%) of the 90 cases, pseudoexfoliation syndrome was associated with high intraocular pressure, and 13 (14.4%) had high intraocular pressure and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma.
Conclusions and recommendations: Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is common in Baso and Worena District, central Ethiopia. It represents one of the major risk factors for glaucoma. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2020; 34(1):54-58]
Key words: Pseudoexfoliation syndrome, glaucoma, intraocular pressure